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Title: Ecology of the Columbia spotted frog in northeastern Oregon.
Author: Bull, Evelyn L.
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-640. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 46 p
Description: The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) is one of several amphibians in the Western United States experiencing population declines. The breeding, postbreeding, and overwintering habitat and ecology of this species were investigated in 10 study sites in northeastern Oregon from 1997 through 2004. A variety of habitats with permanent water were used as breeding sites and as postbreeding habitat during the summer. Ice-covered ponds, warm springs, rivers, and seeps in forested habitats were used for overwintering. Diet consisted of a wide variety of mollusks and arthropods with beetles, ants, wasps, and flies composing more than 50 percent. Population size was as high as 135 females at one site, and ratios of males to females ranged from 1.0 to 2.8. The oldest male and female were 9.7 and 8.7 years old, respectively, based on skeletochronology. Males reached sexual maturity at 1 year 9 months after metamorphosis and most females at 2 years 9 months after metamorphosis. One female laid eggs in up to 3 consecutive years. Size (snout-vent length) was not a good indicator of age in frogs older than 2 years. Long-term monitoring is necessary to determine the effects of a variety of disturbance factors and chytrid fungus that could influence spotted frog populations in northeastern Oregon.
Keywords: Columbia spotted frog, Rana luteiventris, northeastern Oregon, amphibian ecology
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Bull, Evelyn L. 2005. Ecology of the Columbia spotted frog in northeastern Oregon. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-640. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 46 p
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