Title: Using acoustic analysis to presort warp-prone ponderosa pine 2 by 4s before kiln-drying
Author: Wang, Xiping; Simpson, William T.
Source: Wood and fiber science. Vol. 38, no. 2 (2006): pages 206-214.
Description: This study evaluated the potential of acoustic analysis as presorting criteria to identify warp-prone boards before kiln-drying. Dimension lumber, 38 by 89 mm (nominal 2 by 4 in.) and 2.44 m (8 it) long, sawn from open-grown small-diameter ponderosa pine trees, was acoustically tested lengthwise at green condition. Three acoustic properties (acoustic speed, rate of wave attenuation, and acoustic modulus of elasticity (MOE)) were then determined through waveform analysis. Boards were then kiln-dried, and warp was measured immediately after drying and after equilibrating to about 13% equilibrium moisture content. Crook and bow measured after drying decreased as acoustic speed and acoustic MOE of green hoards increased and rate of wave attenuation of green boards decreased. Twist was found to have no relationship with any acoustic properties of green 2 by 4s. The results also show a statistically significant correlation between acoustic properties of green 2 by 4s and the grade loss caused by exceeding warp limits. As the number of Structural Light Framing grade losses increased, the acoustic speed and acoustic MOE decreased significantly, whereas rate of wave attenuation increased significantly. However, no relationship was found between green hoard density and warp and grades last.
Keywords: Green board, warp, presort, acoustic speed, rate of wave attenuation, acoustic modulus of elasticity, lumber moisture, acoustic properties, elasticity, lumber drying, drying, nondestructive testing, moisture content, acoustic speed, small-diameter timber, smallwood, ponderosa pine, kiln drying, modulus of elasticity, warping
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Wang, Xiping; Simpson, William T. 2006. Using acoustic analysis to presort warp-prone ponderosa pine 2 by 4s before kiln-drying. Wood and fiber science. Vol. 38, no. 2 (2006): pages 206-214.
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