Title: Whitebark Pine Germination, Rust Resistance, and Cold Hardiness Among Seed Sources in the Inland Northwest: Planting Strategies for Restoration
Author: Mahalovich, Mary F.; Burr, Karen E.; Foushee, David L.
Source: In: Riley, L.E.; Dumroese, R.K.; Landis, T.D., tech. coords. 2006. National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations - 2005. Proc. RMRS-P-43. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 91-101
Description: A synthesis of several studies highlights above-average performing seed sources (n = 108) of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), which practitioners can utilize for restoration, wildlife habitat improvement, and operational planting programs. It is the first report of this magnitude of blister rust resistance for this species. Whitebark pine does have genetic variation and demonstrated resistance to white pine blister rust, increasing from the southeast to the northwest in the Inland Northwest. Early outplanting reports have shown that some seedlings have frost damage or exhibit increased mortality in cold pockets or swales. Cold hardiness, measured in late winter on a smaller sample of sources (n = 55), also showed genetic variability increasing from the northwest to the southeast. Seed zones were delineated by Mahalovich and Hoff (2000) based on information on relative rust hazard and demarcation of mountain ranges. These geographic seed zones support conservative seed transfer with a special emphasis on blister rust infection levels. Sufficient variability exists to maintain these seed zone boundaries, because whitebark pine exhibits more of an intermediate adaptive strategy as compared to the generalist adaptive strategy of western white pine (P. monticola). Based on this composite information, it is feasible to outplant whitebark pine without the additional delay of waiting until blister rust resistant seedlings are developed from a breeding program. There are sources within each seed zone that have both rust resistance and greater cold hardiness, so those factors should not limit tree planting for restoration or critical wildlife habitat improvement objectives.
Typical stock orders involve container-grown seedlings. A comparison between Economy and copper-lined Ray Leach Super Cell Cone-tainers™ (10 in3 [164 cm3]) shows no advantage to using copper lining.
Keywords: Pinus albicaulis, progeny test, genecology, heritability, electrolyte leakage test, index of injury
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Mahalovich, Mary F.; Burr, Karen E.; Foushee, David L. 2006. Whitebark Pine Germination, Rust Resistance, and Cold Hardiness Among Seed Sources in the Inland Northwest: Planting Strategies for Restoration. In: Riley, L.E.; Dumroese, R.K.; Landis, T.D., tech. coords. 2006. National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations - 2005. Proc. RMRS-P-43. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 91-101
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