Title: Policy and management responses to earthworm invasions in North America.
Author: Callaham Jr., Mac A.; Gonzalez, Grizelle; Hale, Cynthia M.; Heneghan, Liam;
Lachnich, Sharon L.; Zou,Xiaoming
Source: Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Description: The introduction, establishment and
spread of non-native earthworm species in North
America have been ongoing for centuries. These
introductions have occurred across the continent
and in some ecosystems have resulted in considerable
modifications to ecosystem processes
and functions associated with above- and
belowground foodwebs. However, many areas of
North America have either never been colonized
by introduced earthworms, or have soils that are
still inhabited exclusively by native earthworm
fauna. Although several modes of transport and
subsequent proliferation of non-native earthworms
have been identified, little effort has been
made to interrupt the flow of new species into
new areas. Examples of major avenues for
introduction of earthworms are the fish-bait,
horticulture, and vermicomposting industries. In
this paper we examine land management practices
that influence the establishment of introduced
species in several ecosystem types, and
identify situations where land management may
be useful in limiting the spread of introduced
earthworm species. Finally, we discuss methods
to regulate the importation of earthworms and
earthworm-containing media so that introduction
of new exotic species can be minimized or
avoided. Although our focus in this paper is
necessarily North American, many of the management
and policy options presented here could
be applicable to the problem of earthworm
invasions in other parts of the world.
Keywords: Biological invasion Æ Quarantine Æ
Biogeography Æ Earthworms Æ Lumbricidae Æ
Megascolecidae Æ Glossoscolecidae Æ Introduced
species Æ Exotics
View and Print this Publication (460k)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility
Callaham Jr., Mac A.; Gonzalez, Grizelle; Hale, Cynthia M.; Heneghan, Liam;
Lachnich, Sharon L.; Zou,Xiaoming 2006. Policy and management responses to earthworm invasions in North America.. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. .