Title: The California closed cone pines (subsection Oocarpae Little and Critchfield): A taxonomic history and review
Author: Millar, Constance I.
Source: Taxon 35(4): 657-670
Description: Of the seven pines that compose subsection Oocarpae (Little and Critchfield) in the genus Pinus, only the three Californian species form a coherent group, while the other four differ from each other and from the Californian species. Traits of the Californian species (Pinus radiata, P. muricata, P. attenuata) vary in complex geographic patterns, a situation that has led to nomenclatural confusion. Modern studies of genetic variation clarified some relationships among the taxa and uncovered other new problems. The taxonomic history and present status are reviewed and discussed. Monterey pine has been described as Pinus californiana, P. adunca, P. Montereyensis, P. monteragensis, P. Sinclairii, P, tuberculata, P. insignis, and P. radiata. Numerous varietal names for the mainland populations were described, then dropped. Current understanding of this species describes pines at Año Nuevo, Monterey, and Cambria as P. radiata var. radiata, pines on Guadalupe Is. as P. radiata var. binata, and on Cedros Is. as P. rodiata var. cedrosensis. Complex variation in bishop pine led populations of that species to be called P. insignis, P. Edgariana, P. murrayana, P. contorta, and P. muricata. Present taxonomy describes central and southern populations as P. muricata var. muricata, populations north of (and including a few individuals at) Monterey as P. muricata var. borealis. The status of two cone variants, P. muricata var. stantonii and P. remorata is disputed on the basis of relationships among other traits. The latter appears to be a variant of bishop pine. Knobcone pine has been described as P. californica, P. tuberculata and P. attenuata. Only the latter name is currently used.
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Millar, Constance I. 1986. The California closed cone pines (subsection Oocarpae Little and Critchfield): A taxonomic history and review. Taxon 35(4): 657-670
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