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Title: Adequacy of Advance Tree-Seedling Regeneration in Pennsylvania's Forests
Author: McWilliams, William H.; Stout, Susan L.; Bowersox, Todd W.; McCormick, Larry H.
Source: North. J. Appl. For. 12(4):187-191.
Description: Measurement of tree seedlings and herbaceous vegetation from 499 sample locations across Pennsylvania revealed that advance tree-seedling regeneration is inadequate for new stand establishment across most of the State. The samples were located in stands from 40% to 75% stocked to focus on stands with ample light and growing space for establishment of abundant advance regeneration. A range of regeneration adequacy criteria was applied to the measurements. Using the least stringent criterion, a low density of stems of any tree species, resulted in 40% of the sample locations being adequately stocked. Applying the most stringent criterion, a high density of stems of desirable species, resulted in only 4% of the sample locations being adequately stocked. With the exception of forest-type group, no significant relationship was found between the adequacy of regeneration and other variables tested at the broad level of geographic scale of this study. Levels of fern and grass sufficient to hamper tree-seedling development were found at 54% of the sample locations. Fern species that propagate primarily by spreading rhizomes accounted for 70% of the total fern sample.
Keywords: regeneration, Pennsylvania, stocking
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McWilliams, William H.; Stout, Susan L.; Bowersox, Todd W.; McCormick, Larry H. 1995. Adequacy of Advance Tree-Seedling Regeneration in Pennsylvania's Forests. North. J. Appl. For. 12(4):187-191.
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