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Title: Cities: Managing densely settled social-ecological systems
Author: Grove, J. Morgan.
Source: In: Chapin, F. Stuart, III: Kofinas, Gary P.; Folke, Carl, eds. Principles of ecosystem stewardship. Resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. New York, NY: Springer: 281-294.
Description: The transition from a rural to urban population represents a demographic, economic, cultural, and environmental tipping point. In 1800, about 3% of the world’s human population lived in urban areas. By 1900, this proportion rose to approximately 14% and now exceeds 50% in 2008. Nearly every week 1.3 million additional people arrive in the world’s cities (about 70 million a year), with increases due to migration being largest in developing countries (Brand 2006, Chan 2007). People in developing countries have relocated from the countryside to towns and cities of every size during the past 50 years.
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Grove, J. Morgan. 2009. Cities: Managing densely settled social-ecological systems. In: Chapin, F. Stuart, III: Kofinas, Gary P.; Folke, Carl, eds. Principles of ecosystem stewardship. Resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. New York, NY: Springer: 281-294.
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