You are here: Home
/ Publication Information
Title: Tree and impervious cover in the United States
Author: Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.
Source: Landscape and Urban Planning. 107: 21-30.
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Description: Using aerial photograph interpretation of circa 2005 imagery, percent tree canopy and impervious surface cover in the conterminous United States are estimated at 34.2% (standard error (SE) = 0.2%) and 2.4% (SE = 0.1%), respectively. Within urban/community areas, percent tree cover (35.1%, SE = 0.4%) is similar to the national value, but percent impervious cover is significantly higher (17.5%, SE = 0.3%). Tree cover per capita in urban areas averaged 377 m2/person, while impervious cover per capita averaged 274 m2/person. Percent tree cover in urban/community areas tends to be significantly higher than in rural areas in several predominantly grassland states, with the greatest difference in Kansas (+17.3%). Most states in more forested regions exhibited a decrease in tree cover between urban/community areas and rural lands, with greatest difference in Kentucky (-37.9%). These changes in tree cover varied significantly among states, illustrating the roles of urban development patterns, management/planning interactions, and the natural environment on creating cover patterns exhibited in urban areas. Understanding these forces and patterns can lead to better planning and management activities to optimize the mix of tree and impervious cover to sustain urban functions while enhancing environmental quality and human health in urban areas.
Keywords: urban tree cover, rural tree cover, state tree cover, urban impervious cover, rural impervious cover, state impervious cover
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
- This publication may be available in hard copy. Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
- Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact Sharon Hobrla, firstname.lastname@example.org if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
XML: View XML
Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J. 2012. Tree and impervious cover in the United States. Landscape and Urban Planning. 107: 21-30.
Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility