Title: Tree Defects: A Photo Guide Part B
Author: Shigo, Alex L.
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-82. Broomall, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station. 57-lll p. (Page 68 blank)
Station ID: GTR-NE-082
Description: This guide shows, in 110 photos, how discoloration and decay form in trees. An expanded concept of tree decay is given. After wounding, trees form boundaries to resist the spread of pathogens. The boundary-setting defense process is called compartmentalization, and model of the process is CODIT. The expanded concept and the model are used to reexamine many other tree problems. Defects are major causes of low quality in trees. Use of the information in the guide can help foresters and urban foresters to grow healthier, higher-quality trees.
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Shigo, Alex L. 1983. Tree Defects: A Photo Guide Part B . Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-82. Broomall, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station. 57-lll p. (Page 68 blank).