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Title: A Technique to Study Phenological Interactions between Douglas-Fir Buds and Emerging Second Instar Western Spruce Budworm
Author: Shepherd, Roy F.
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-85. Broomall, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station: 17-20.
Description: A technique is described to relate seasonal development of buds of Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirt.) Franco, to larval emergence and survival of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) (Tortricidae). Losses of larvae due to asynchrony of emergence and bud swelling and the reduced protection of the bud following flush is illustrated.
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Shepherd, Roy F. 1983. A Technique to Study Phenological Interactions between Douglas-Fir Buds and Emerging Second Instar Western Spruce Budworm. In: Talerico, Robert L.; Montgomery, Michael; [Tech. Coords] 1983. Proceedings, forest defoliator--host interactions: A comparison between gypsy moth and spruce budworms; 1983 April 5-7; New Haven, CT : Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-85. Broomall, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station. 17-20 p.
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