Title: Managing cavity trees for wildlife in the Northeast
Author: DeGraaf, Richard M.; Shigo, Alex L.
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-101. Broomall, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station. 22 p.
Station ID: GTR-NE-101
Description: This paper is a guide for woodland owners, managers, or arborists who want to provide key habitat components for northeastern cavity-nesting birds and mammals that use tree dens. Methods for creating and maintaining cavity trees, snags, and den trees are described.
Keywords: compartmentalization, discoloration and decay, birds, mammals
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DeGraaf, Richard M.; Shigo, Alex L. 1985. Managing cavity trees for wildlife in the Northeast. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-101. Broomall, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station. 22 p. .