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Title: Exotic insects in North American forests: ecological systems forever altered
Author: Mattson, William J.
Source: In: Britton, Kerry O., ed. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings; 1997 April 8-10; Nashville, TN. U.S. Forest Service and Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council: 187-194
Description: More than 400 species of exotic phytophagous insects have become established on native and introduced woody plants in North America. About 5 percent of these invasives have well-recognized, severe ecological impacts on the trees and ecosystems that they occupy. For the others, very little is known about their influence on natural processes. However, evidence suggests that all may irrevocably change their respective, invaded ecosystems. In the worst cases, the exotics insects have become the "final straw" causing their adopted host plants to fall into perennial decline-death spirals.
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Mattson, William J. 1998. Exotic insects in North American forests: ecological systems forever altered. In: Britton, Kerry O., ed. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings; 1997 April 8-10; Nashville, TN. U.S. Forest Service and Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council: 187-194.
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