Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern
Help
 

GeoTreesearch


Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

(770 KB)

Title: Use of historically fishless high-mountain lakes and streams by neartic River Otters (Lontra canadensis) in California

Author: Garwood, Justin M.; Knapp, Roland A.; Pope, Karen L.; Grasso, Robert L.; Magnuson, Michael L.; Maurer, Jeff R.

Date: 2013

Source: Northwestern Naturalist 94:51-66

Publication Series: Journal/Magazine Article (JRNL)

Description: In California, River Otters (Lontra canadensis) are most commonly associated with food-rich lowland aquatic habitats where they forage primarily on fish and crustaceans. Their distribution in high-elevation montane regions of the state, areas in which fish and crayfish were absent historically, is largely unknown.We compiled occurrence records of River Otters in California from elevations.1100 m, and evaluated them using evidentiary standards. Based on 126 records, we report the widespread presence of River Otters in the Klamath, southern Cascades, and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, including at elevations exceeding 3000 m. Sixty-three percent of the records met our definition as ‘‘verified’’, and the remaining 37% were considered ‘‘unverified’’. The distribution of observations through time and habitats in which observations were made were similar between verified and unverified records. River Otter records spanned the period from 1900 to 2010, with 50% occurring between 1991 and 2010. Ninety-three percent of the water bodies with records of River Otters contained nonnative prey (fish and crayfish). Those lacking nonnative prey all supported native prey, including amphibians and reptiles. Based on records that contained River Otter foraging observations, nonnative fishes and crayfish were represented in 89% of the total accounts, and native frogs and invertebrates were represented in 22%. It remains unclear whether River Otters occurred in California’s high-elevation water bodies prior to the introduction of fish and crayfish, and additional research is needed to understand the possible influence of nonnative prey in allowing River Otters to expand their distribution in these habitats.

Keywords: California, Cascade Range, fishless habitats, introduced prey, Klamath Mountains, Lontra canadensis, montane distribution, River Otter, Sierra Nevada, trout stocking

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

XML: View XML

Citation:


Garwood, Justin M.; Knapp, Roland A.; Pope, Karen L.; Grasso, Robert L.; Magnuson, Michael L.; Maurer, Jeff R. 2013. Use of historically fishless high-mountain lakes and streams by neartic River Otters (Lontra canadensis) in California. Northwestern Naturalist 94:51-66.

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.