Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

GeoTreesearch


Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

(1.2 MB)

Title: High temperature performance of soy-based adhesives

Author: O’Dell, Jane L.; Hunt, Christopher G.; Frihart, Charles R.

Date: 2013

Source: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, Volume 27, 2013; pp. 2027-2042.

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: We studied the high temperature performance of soy meal processed to different protein concentrations (flour, concentrate, and isolate), as well as formulated soy-based adhesives, and commercial nonsoy adhesives for comparison. No thermal transitions were seen in phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF) or soy-phenol-formaldehyde (SoyPF) or in as-received soy flour adhesive during differential scanning calorimetry scans heating at 10 °C/min between 35 and 235 °C. Heat flow rates decreased in the order soy flour (as received) > SoyPF > PRF > emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI). In thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) scans from 110 to 300 °C at 2 °C/min, total weight loss decreased in the order soy flour (as-received) > SoyPF > PRF > casein > maple > EPI. For bio-based materials, the total weight loss (TGA) decreased in the order soy flour (as-received) > concentrate, casein > isolate. Dynamic mechanical analysis from 35 to 235 °C at 5 °C/min of two veneers bonded by cured adhesive showed 30–40% decline in storage modulus for maple compared to 45–55% for the adhesive made from soy flour in water (Soy Flour) and 70–80% for a commercial poly(vinyl acetate) modified for heat resistance. DMA on glass fiber mats showed thermal softening temperatures increasing in the order Soy Flour < casein < isolate < concentrate. We suggest that the low molecular weight carbohydrates plasticize the flour product. When soy-based adhesives were tested in real bondlines in DMA and creep tests in shear, they showed less decrease in storage modulus than the glass fiber-supported specimens. This suggests that interaction with the wood substrate improved the heat resistance property of the adhesive. Average hot shear strengths (ASTM D7247) were 4.6 and 3.1 MPa for SoyPF and Soy Flour compared to 4.7 and 0.8 MPa for PRF and EPI and 4.7 for solid maple. As a whole, these data suggest that despite indications of heat sensitivity when tested neat, soy-based adhesives are likely to pass the heat resistance criterion required for structural adhesives.

Keywords: soy, wood, structural adhesive, heat resistance, fire resistance

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

XML: View XML

Citation:


O’Dell, Jane L.; Hunt, Christopher G.; Frihart, Charles R. 2013. High temperature performance of soy-based adhesives. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology. 27(18-19): 2027-2042.

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.