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Title: Environmental indices for common Michigan trees and shrubs.
Author: Brand, Gary J.;
Source: Research Paper NC-261. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
Description: Plants are indicators of environmental factors like moisture, nutrients, heat, and light. Semi-quantitative indices for these four factors were developed for 90 Michigan trees and shrubs. The indices and a tally of species present provide a simple evaluation of the environment of a forest stand and a useful management aid.
Keywords: moisture, nutrients, heat, light, synecological coordinates
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Brand, Gary J. 1985. Environmental indices for common Michigan trees and shrubs. Research Paper NC-261. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
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