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Title: European Pine Shoot Moth
Author: Miller, William E.; Hastings, Arthur R.; Wootten, John F.;
Source: Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 59. [Broomall, PA:] U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Area State & Private Forestry
Publication Series: Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet (FIDL)
Description: In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss mountain pine (P. mugo Turra) may be severely attacked, but the resulting dense, bushy growth does not seriously affect the appearance of this ornamental tree.
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Miller, William E.; Hastings, Arthur R.; Wootten, John F. 1961. European Pine Shoot Moth. Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 59. [Broomall, PA:] U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Area State & Private Forestry
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