Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (260 KB bytes)

Title: The relationship of spawning mode to conservation of North American minnows (Cyprinidae)

Author: Johnston, Carol E.;

Date: 1999

Source: Environmental Biology of Fishes.55: 21-30.

Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication

Description: Approximately 20 percent of North American minnows are considered imperiled. The factors responsible for imperilment in this group are complex, but the relationship of spawning mode to conservation of North American minnows has not been explored. The author provides a summary of the spawning modes of imperiled North American minnows, discuss patterns between these modes and conservation status, and predict the spawning modes for several poorly known imperiled species. Of the 46 species of North American minnows that are imperiled, spawning modes are known for only 13 species. All spawning modes are represented in the imperiled group of minnows except mound-building and egg­-clustering, and with the exception of crevice-spawners and pit-ridge-builders, the percentage of imperiled minnows in each category of spawning mode is roughly proportional to the percentage of minnows in that category overall. Species with complex spawning modes, such as mound-building, pit-building, and egg-clustering, are among the most common fishes in North American streams. This pattern suggests that there is a relationship between parental care and success (lack of imperilment) in minnows. Spawning mode is an important consideration in the formulation of recovery plans and proactive conservation efforts.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication. (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)



Johnston, Carol E. 1999. The relationship of spawning mode to conservation of North American minnows (Cyprinidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes.55: 21-30.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.