Title: Black Pineleaf Scale (FIDL)
Author: Sheehan, Katharine A.; Melendez, Mario A.; Westfall, Shana;
Source: Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 91. [Berkley, CA:] U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station
Publication Series: Forest Insect and Disease Leaflet (FIDL)
Description: The black pineleaf scale (Nuculaspis californica (Coleman)) belongs to a group of sucking insects called armored scales. Concealed under their protective shells, these scales insert their mouthparts into their hosts, removing sap and, possibly, injecting toxic enzymes secreted in the saliva. Armored scales are important pests of agricultural and ornamental plants; heavy infestations of black pineleaf scale can severely weaken or kill host conifers. Infestations are generally localized, sometimes in just a few trees, and are reported frequently in sugar and Monterey pines. Occasionally, however, epidemics cover several thousand acres of forest, and nearly every host tree in the area may be infested. Large areas of Jeffrey and ponderosa pines in northeastern and southern California, for example, have had recurring infestations since 1940.
Keywords: Insect, mortality.
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Sheehan, Katharine A.; Melendez, Mario A.; Westfall, Shana 1998. Black Pineleaf Scale (FIDL). Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 91. [Berkley, CA:] U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station
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