Title: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Pest Alert)
Author: USDA Forest Service,;
Source: US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry, 11 Campus Blvd, Quite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073, NA-PR-09-05
Publication Series: Program Aid
Description: Native to Asia, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is a small, aphidlike insect that threatens the health and sustainability of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) in the Eastern United States. Hemlock woolly adelgid was fi rst reported in the Eastern United States in 1951 near Richmond, Virginia. By 2005, it was established in portions of 16 States from Maine to Georgia, where infestations covered about half of the range of hemlock. Areas of extensive tree mortality and decline are found throughout the infested region, but the impact has been most severe in some areas of Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut.
Hemlock decline and mortality typically occur within 4 to 10 years of infestation in the insect's northern range, but can occur in as little as 3 to 6 years in its southern range. Other hemlock stressors, including drought, poor site conditions, and insect and disease pests such as elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa), hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria), spruce spider mite (Oligonychus ununguis), hemlock borer (Melanophila fulvogutta), root rot disease (Armillaria mellea), and needlerust (Melampsora parlowii), accelerate the rate and extent of hemlock mortality.
Keywords: Insect, defoliation, hwa mortality, hemlock mortality, adelges tsugae, tsuga caroliniana, hemlock decline, fiorinia externa, lambdina fifi scellaria fifi scellaria, spruce spider mite, oligonychus ununguis, hemlock borer, melanophila fulvogutta, root rot disease, armillaria mellea, needlerust, melampsora parlowii), eastern hemlock, carolina hemlock, nymphal instars, hemlock needles, managing hemlock woolly adelgid, hemlock woolly adelgid biocontrol, hemlock woolly adelgid predators, NA-PR-09-05
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USDA Forest Service 1994. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Pest Alert). NA-PR-03-94. Newtown Square, PA:U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Area State & Private Forestry
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