Title: Evidence for multiple hydrogen-ion donor systems in rain
Author: Krupa, Sagar V.; Coscio, M. R., Jr. Jr.; Wood, F. A.;
Source: In: Dochinger, L. S.; Seliga, T. A., eds. Proceedings of the first international symposium on acid precipitation and the forest ecosystem; Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 371-380
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Description: An integrated analytical system consisting of combined scanning electron microscopy and x-ray analysis, atomic absorption, colorimetry and coulometry was used to study rain water chemistry. The coulometry facilitated the determination in molarities of strong and non-volatile and volatile weak acids. The pH of individual rains in St. Paul - Minneapolis, Minnesota ranged from 4.0 to 5.65 during the summer of 1974. Samples of a given rain from different sites had different qualitative and quantitative bases for the measured pH. Increase in strong acid concentrations with a decrease in pH was not an exclusive phenomenon. Molarities of weak acids (volatile and/or non-volatile) also increased with an increase in the acidity. Studies conducted on Twin Cities rain samples indicated that the total salt content expressed from the electrical conductivity could not be accounted for by the total concentrations of individual metals quantified (Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ca, Mg, Na, and K). In addition, no correlation could be shown between the contents of SO4-2, NO3-1, Cl2-1, & PO4-1 and the observed changes in pH.
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Krupa, Sagar V.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Wood, F. A. 1976. Evidence for multiple hydrogen-ion donor systems in rain. In: Dochinger, L. S.; Seliga, T. A., eds. Proceedings of the first international symposium on acid precipitation and the forest ecosystem; Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 371-380
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