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Title: Collar crack of birch
Author: Shigo, Alex L.;
Source: Research Note NE-22. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1-4
Publication Series: Research Note (RN)
Description: The name "Collar crack" is suggested for a condition of birches observed in the past 4 years during field studies of forest disease problems in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The first close observations of this condition were made during the summer of 1963. This is a report on those observations and an explanation of the possible cause.
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Shigo, Alex L. 1964. Collar crack of birch. Research Note NE-22. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1-4
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