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Title: Pattern of defect associated with stem stubs on northern hardwoods
Author: Shigo, Alex L.;
Source: Research Note NE-34. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1-4
Publication Series: Research Note (RN)
Description: Decay and discoloration are the principal defects that reduce quality of northern hardwoods in New England. We need to know how to minimize these defects in young growing stock, and how to recognize them in merchantable trees. To determine accurately the amount of internal defect in trees, we must know the quantitative relationships between external signs on stems and the losses within them. The purpose of this note is to point out the defect pattern associated with dead stubs of main stems that persist on living northern hardwoods.
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Shigo, Alex L. 1965. Pattern of defect associated with stem stubs on northern hardwoods. Research Note NE-34. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1-4
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