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Title: Sustained winter streamflow from groundmelt
Author: Federer, C. Anthony;
Source: Research Note NE-41. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1-4
Publication Series: Research Note (RN)
Description: The watersheds of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire are among the few small gaged watersheds for which continuous winter streamflow records are obtained while deep snow covers the area. Records show that a remarkably steady flow of between 0.006 and 0.025 area-inch of water per day leaves the watershed in spite of snow depths up to 6 feet and air temperatures often continuously below 10ºF. Wisler and Brater (1959) stated that streamflow of about 0.01 area-inches/day (0.025 cm/day) arises from groundmelt, which is defined as melt of snow by heat transferred from the soil to the bottom surface of the snowpack. Gold (1957) gave measured soilheat flux data corresponding to a groundmelt of 0.071 cm/day under about 12 inches of snow for February and March 1955 at Ottawa, Ontario. Calculations from soil temperature gradients and thermal conductivity led to groundmelt estimates of 0.01 to 0.02 inches/day at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory (Corps Engineers, 1956). This note presents data verifying the groundmelt theory for Hubbard Brook.
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Federer, C. Anthony 1965. Sustained winter streamflow from groundmelt. Research Note NE-41. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1-4
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