Title: Crowding related norms in outdoor recreation: U.S. versus international visitors
Author: Budruk, Megha; Manning, Robert;
Source: In: Schuster, Rudy, comp., ed. Proceedings of the 2002 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-302. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 216-221
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Description: Research on crowding-related norms has begun to explore differences across settings, time, activities, and visitor characteristics such as age, economic status, and country of origin. The literature examining visitors' country of origin suggests a mixed pattern. While there is some evidence of differences across country of origin, other studies have not indicated such. This paper presents a meta-analysis of this issue using data from multiple studies conducted in the U.S. national park system. Findings indicate relatively few differences between U.S. and international visitors regarding a variety of crowding-related norms and associated measures. Where there are differences, these tend to be associated with the "preference" dimension of crowding-related norms and with visitor reports of the number of other visitors typically seen. Understanding visitor norms across cultures will enable managers to provide for an improved national park experience for all.
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Budruk, Megha; Manning, Robert 2003. Crowding related norms in outdoor recreation: U.S. versus international visitors. In: Schuster, Rudy, comp., ed. Proceedings of the 2002 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-302. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 216-221
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