Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (1.0 MB)

Title: Dynamics in late-successional hemlock-hardwood forests over three decades

Author: Woods, Kerry D.;

Date: 2000

Source: Ecology. Volume 81. Issue 1. 2000. pp. 110-126

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: Permanent plots in old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forests of Michigan's upper peninsula have been remeasured over periods of 16-32 yr. A gradient from hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to sugar maple (Acer saccharum) dominance is associated with increasing soil pH and calcium. Secondary species include yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and basswood (Tilia americana). From 1962 to 1994 hemlock increased in basal area and dominance in most plots. Sugar maple showed little overall change, while basswood and especially yellow birch showed sporadic but often large declines in basal area, Birch populations declined due to lack of recruitment, and sugar maple and basswood may be subject to similar decline; only hemlock showed a fairly stable size structure. Mortality rates were lowest for hemlock (0.3%/yr) and highest for yellow birch (1.6%/yr), corresponding to canopy residence times of 357 and 61 yr, respectively. Stem maps allowed assessment of neighborhood influences on growth and mortality. Growth and mortality rates were negatively correlated for all species. Growth rate was influenced by tree size and site conditions for all species, but hemlock and sugar maple growth rates were also affected size- and distance-weighted indices of neighbor influence. Old-growth stands several centuries old continue to undergo compositional change related to both stand history and current population interactions. Yellow birch and basswood are probably maintained by significant disturbances and will decline under a disturbance regime of small gaps. Hemlock may be the ultimate competitive dominant in most sites but may require well over a millennium without major disturbance to displace sugar maple.

Keywords: Acer saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis, canopy dynamics, competition, hemlock-northern hardwood forest, long-term studies, old-growth forest, permanent plots, succession, tree demography, tsuga canadensis

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • This publication may be available in hard copy. Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
  • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.

XML: View XML

Citation:


Woods, Kerry D. 2000. Dynamics in late-successional hemlock-hardwood forests over three decades. Ecology. Volume 81. Issue 1. 2000. pp. 110-126

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.