Title: Land fragmentationn and impacts to streams and fish in the central and upper midwest
Author: Verry, Elon S.;
Source: In: Proceedings, Society of American Foresters 2000 national convention; 2000 November 16-20; Washington DC. SAF Publication 01-02. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 38-44
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Description: Fragmentation of the land means changes in the vegetative cover. This alone has caused significant and wide spread physical and water quality changes to the streams and rivers in the central and upper Midwest. Removal of the forest canopy that changes land use to "open" conditions: agricultural, urban, or rights of way, is sufficient to initiate and prolong in-channel stream erosion and sedimentation for more than a Century. The comparison between cropland and forestland, shows the loss of forest cover will cause nearly annual, bankfull, peak flows to double or triple. The processes causing higher bankfull flows are synchronized snowmelt in open land and young-aged forestland and rapid delivery of rainwater from compacted soils. In contemporary forestlands, very high rates of harvesting can also increase bankfull flows. Where forestland is not fragmented, undersized road culverts, eroding road surfaces, and road washouts, are a significant source of sediment to streams. Both high velocities in culverts, high dams, and high bankfull stream velocities have fragmented the fish, invertebrate, and mussel communities of the Midwest. This paper considers how and where these impacts occur, and suggests riparian restoration measures to bring Midwest streams to their productive best.
Keywords: Land framentation, streams, fish, upper midwest, canopy, forest
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
- This publication may be available in hard copy. Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
- Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact Sharon Hobrla, email@example.com if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
XML: View XML
Verry, Elon S. 2000. Land fragmentationn and impacts to streams and fish in the central and upper midwest. In: Proceedings, Society of American Foresters 2000 national convention; 2000 November 16-20; Washington DC. SAF Publication 01-02. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 38-44
Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility