Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (2.5 MB)

Title: Quantitative classification of a historic northern Wisconsin (U.S.A.) landscape: mapping forests at regional scales

Author: Schulte, Lisa A.; Mladenoff, David J.; Nordheim, Erik V.;

Date: 2002

Source: Canadian Journal of Forest Reasearch 32:1616-1638

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: We developed a quantitative and replicable classification system to improve understanding of historical composition and structure within northern Wisconsin's forests. The classification system was based on statistical cluster analysis and two forest metrics, relative dominance (% basal area) and relative importance (mean of relative dominance and relative density), as computed from the original U.S. Public Land Survey (PLS) bearing-tree data. Broad forest patterns are consistent between the two metrics; yet, detailed inspection highlights different aspects of historical structure. Maps produced characterize vegetation at regional scales and reveal patterns that can be interpreted in the context of environmental constraints. Our classifications have a fairly coarse spatial grain (2.6 km?) and fine-scale, patchily distributed ecosystems types are not represented. This resolution, however, is consistent with that of the PLS bearing-tree data, and maintaining it allowed retention of other beneficial map qualities, including quantitative representation of the data, replicability, flexibility, and an assessment of robustness and confidence. Our classifications are broadly applicable for regional-scale scientific and forest-management uses, including (i) assessing natural variability, (ii) determining the potential distribution of species, (iii) setting goals for ecological restoration, and (iv) calculating landscape change.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • This publication may be available in hard copy. Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
  • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.



Schulte, Lisa A.; Mladenoff, David J.; Nordheim, Erik V. 2002. Quantitative classification of a historic northern Wisconsin (U.S.A.) landscape: mapping forests at regional scales. Canadian Journal of Forest Reasearch 32:1616-1638


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.