Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (918 KB)

Title: Urban forests and parks as privacy refuges

Author: Hammitt, William E.;

Date: 2002

Source: Journal of Arboriculture 28(1):19-26

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: Urban forests and parks are forested areas that can serve as refuges for privacy. This article presents a conceptual argument for urban forests and parks as privacy refuges, and data that support the argument. On-site visitors (n = 610) to four Cleveland, Ohio, U.S., Metroparks were surveyed in 1995. Results indicated that considerable amounts of privacy were obtained during visits to the urban forests and parks, that people spent an average of two-plus hours per visit to these privacy refuges, that certain settings (habitats) within the refuges were preferred over others for privacy, and that "reflective thought" was the most important function (benefit) that privacy served within the refuges. The findings have implications for preserving and managing urban forests and parks as nearby refuges where the basic human need for privacy can be found.

Keywords: Benefits, solitude, visitor surveys, urban forestry

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • This publication may be available in hard copy. Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
  • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.



Hammitt, William E. 2002. Urban forests and parks as privacy refuges. Journal of Arboriculture 28(1):19-26


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.