Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (179 KB)

Title: Comparative performance of new, repaired, and remanufactured 48- by 40-inch GMA-style wood pallets

Author: Clarke, John W.; White, Marshall S.; Araman, Philip A.;

Date: 2005

Source: Forest Products Journal. 55(12): 83-88

Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication

Description: The pallet repair industry has been growing at significant rates in the United States. It has been estimated that the repair industry received 299 million pallets in 2001, and a majority went back into the marketplace as repaired or remanufactured pallets. Many question how well these pallets perform when compared to new pallets. The purpose of this research was to provide a benchmark for the relative performance (strength, stiffness, and durability) of new, repaired, and remanufactured 48- by 40-inch, three-stringer, partial four-way, flush, non-reversible, Grocery Manufacturers of America (GMA)-type pallets. GMA-type pallets were selected because they are the most common wood pallets repaired and remanufactured in the United States. The pallets in this study were sampled in 1995 from locations throughout the United States. Repaired pallets were separated into three grades. Performance tests showed differences between new, repaired, and remanufactured pallets. Bending strength and stiffness spanning pallet stringers declined and variation increased as repair quality decreased. This was expected because repair quality is segregated according to stringer repair level. There was little difference in the bending strength and stiffness of new and used GMA-style pallets spanning the deckboards. Stringer repair had a small effect on performance when spanning deckboards. Remanufactured pallets were less strong and stiff due to nail holes in many of the used parts. The new, remanufactured, and Grade A GMA-type wood pallets performed similarly when tested for structural durability and should have comparable service life in use. Greater standardization of repair practices would result in performance improvements of repaired wood pallets.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication. (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)



Clarke, John W.; White, Marshall S.; Araman, Philip A. 2005. Comparative performance of new, repaired, and remanufactured 48- by 40-inch GMA-style wood pallets. Forest Products Journal. 55(12): 83-88


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.