Title: Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow birch
Author: Rast, Everette D., Beaton, John A., Sonderman, David L.; Rast, Everette D.; Beaton, John A.; Sonderman, David L.;
Source: Res. Pap. NE-648. Radnor, PA: US. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 25 p.
Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
Description: To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for yellow birch. Eleven types of external defect indicators and associated defects that are particularly difficult to evaluate are illustrated and described.
Keywords: defect identification, photo guide, yellow birch, quality assessment
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Rast, Everette D., Beaton, John A., Sonderman, David L. 1991. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow birch. Res. Pap. NE-648. Radnor, PA: US. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 25 p.
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