You are here: Home
/ Publication Information
Title: Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology
Author: Shaw, Nancy L.; Hurd, Emerenciana G.; Haferkamp, Marshall R.;
Source: Journal of range management. 49(6): 551-553
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
Description: Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined the flower, fruit, and seed morphology of spiny hopsage microscopically to resolve these discrepancies and provide a basis for discussing the functional roles of bracted utricle and seed components. The spiny hopsage fruit is a utricle consisting of a single disk-shaped seed contained within a thin pericarp. The utricle is enclosed in 2 papery bracteoles. Failure to recognize the obscure pericarp plus inaccurate use of terminology appear responsible for confusion in the literature. The presence and condition of seed and fruit structures can affect seeding requirements and embryo response to environmental conditions. Consequently, accurate identification of all structures associated with the fruit or seed combined with a review of seed biology and seedling establishment literature is essential for designing effective wildland seeding practices.
Keywords: chenopod, diaspore, Grayia spinosa, seed germination, utricle
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
- You may send email to firstname.lastname@example.org to request a hard copy of this publication. (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
XML: View XML
Shaw, Nancy L.; Hurd, Emerenciana G.; Haferkamp, Marshall R. 1996. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology. Journal of range management. 49(6): 551-553
Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility