Title: Sources and Practices Contributing to Soil Contamination
Author: Knox, A.S.; Gamerdinger, A.P.; Adriano, D.C.; Kolka, R.K.; Kaplan, D.I.;
Source: In: Bioremediation of Contaiminated Soils, D.C. Adriano, J.-M. Bollag, W.T. Frankenberger, Jr., and R.C. Sims Eds. No. 37, Ch. 4
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
Description: The term soil contamination can have different connotations because anthropogehic sources of contaminants have affected virtually every natural ecosystem in the world; a commonly held view is that contamination occurs when the soil composition deiiates from the normal composition (Adriano et al., 1997). Other specialists have defined soil pollution as the presence of some constituent in the soil. caused by human activity, at such a concentration that there is a significant risk of damage to users of the soil or a restraint of its free use (Finney, 1987). The risk can take many forms: impairment of the health of humans, animals, or plants: damage to buildings or structures on the soil: contamination of ground waters or surface waters in contact with the soil. In their natural state, contaminants may not be classified as pollutants unless they have some detrimental effect to organisms. Pollution occurs when a substance is present in greater than natutal concentrations as a result of human activities and has a net detrimental effect upon the environment and its components (Adriano et al., 1997). Likewise, groundwater contamination may refer to the degradation of the natural quality of groundwater as a result of human activities (Boulding, 1995). From a plant or animal (including humans) health perspective, soils are not considered polluted unless a threshold concentration exists that begins to affect biologlcal processes. These thresholds can be exceeded by natural concentrations, but generally these are localized occurrences (Freedman & Hutchinson, 1981).
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Knox, A.S.; Gamerdinger, A.P.; Adriano, D.C.; Kolka, R.K.; Kaplan, D.I. 1999. Sources and Practices Contributing to Soil Contamination. In: Bioremediation of Contaiminated Soils, D.C. Adriano, J.-M. Bollag, W.T. Frankenberger, Jr., and R.C. Sims Eds. No. 37, Ch. 4
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