Title: Seed and Cone Insects of Southern Pines
Author: Southeastern Forest Experiment Station,;
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-8. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 48 p.
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Distribution maps are included for all insect species, providing at a glance each insect's expected southern distribution. Knowledge of some distributions is incomplete. Accordingly, the range maps should be used as general rather than absolute guides.
Insect species and their pine hosts are tabulated for each of the three damage categories (inside front cover). Insect-host relationships are based upon our present knowledge. In some instances, insect-host associations are uncertain; these are designated by a question mark.
A summary of insect damage periods (inside back cover) shows when each insect species is likely to cause damage. It is a further aid in specific identification.
Illustrations and a key to the larvae of cone boring caterpillars are included because of the importance of this group, the similarity of the damage they inflict on the host, and the likelihood of the larvae being present in the damaged host material collected. A glossary at the end of this guide defines certain technical terms which might be unfamiliar to the user, and a host list provides scientific names of the host species.
In identifying the insect causing damage, the reader should make use of as much information as possible. He should use the range maps, the summary of insect occurrence by host pines, the summary of insect damage periods, keys, and color photographs. In most instances, the attacking insect may be narrowed down to one or two species using only the colored photographs. Individual descriptions of the insects and their damage should confirm identification in nearly all cases.
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Southeastern Forest Experiment Station 1980. Seed and Cone Insects of Southern Pines. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-8. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 48 p.
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