Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (582 KB)

Title: Decline of the migratory form in bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, and implications for conservation

Author: Nelson, M. Lee; McMahon, Thomas E.; Thurow, Russell F.;

Date: 2002

Source: Environmental biology of fishes. 64(1-3): 321–332.

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: Large-bodied, migratory life history forms of bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, were historically abundant in northwestern North America, but many remaining populations of this now-threatened species presently persist as small-bodied residents isolated in headwater streams.We examined whether the migratory form has been lost from headwater populations of bull charr and their potential for re-establishment. Upstream and downstream movement of bull charr and other salmonids from three tributary populations in the Bitterroot River drainage, Montana, was measured with weirs over a 17-month period. The migratory life history was rare or absent in two tributaries but still present at a low level in a third. In contrast, substantial numbers (n = 1745) of juvenile and adults of other salmonids (brown trout, Salmo trutta, cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki, and mountain whitefish, Prosopium williamsoni) were captured near tributary mouths, indicating a migratory life history was common in other species. Apparent decline of the migratory life history in bull charr was not directly related to damming suggesting other downstream mortality factors (predation, temperature) also are involved. Isolated, nonmigratory forms have increased risk of extinction, and restoration of the population connectivity via the re-establishment of migratory stocks is an important conservation goal for bull charr recovery. However, the factors governing migratory tendency remain unclear.

Keywords: life history, bull trout, form, resident

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Nelson, M. Lee; McMahon, Thomas E.; Thurow, Russell F. 2002. Decline of the migratory form in bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, and implications for conservation. Environmental biology of fishes. 64(1-3): 321–332.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.