Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (850 KB bytes)

Title: Spatial and temporal interactions of elk, mule deer, and cattle.

Author: Coe, Priscilla K.; Johnson, Bruce K.; Stewart, Kelley M.; Kie, John G.;

Date: 2004

Source: In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 656-669

Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication

Description: Elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and cattle share millions of acres of public and private forests and rangelands across the western United States and Canada. These three species have important social, ecological and economic values. Understanding their interspecific interactions may clarify two recurring issues in their management: competition for food and competition for space, both may result in decreased animal fitness. Animal unit equivalents (AUEs) among these three species have been based on equivalent body mass (Society for Range Management 1989), whereby one cow is equivalent to two and one-half elk or to six mule deer. Hobbs and Carpenter (1986) argue that AUEs should be based on dietary overlap, and the argument can be extended to include spatial overlap. Consequently, the ecological impact of one species on the landscape may not be equivalent to another species. Furthermore, allocating forage becomes challenging if managers do not clearly understand the spatial and dietary overlap among these three species. Accurate predictions of ungulate distributions over time and space may help managers regulate densities and understand effects of specific ungulates on ecosystem processes.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • You may send email to pnw_pnwpubs@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication. (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)

XML: View XML

Citation:


Coe, Priscilla K.; Johnson, Bruce K.; Stewart, Kelley M.; Kie, John G. 2004. Spatial and temporal interactions of elk, mule deer, and cattle. In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 656-669

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.