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Title: Elk and mule deer responses to variation in hunting pressure.
Author: Johnson, Bruce K.; Ager, Alan A.; Noyes, James H.; Cimon, Norm.;
Source: In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 625-640
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
Description: Hunting can exert a variety of effects on both targeted and nontargeted ungulates, and animals either run or hide in response to hunting pressure. If animals successfully elude hunters by running, the energetic cost may deplete fat reserves needed for survival during winter in temperate regions. If animals successfully elude hunters by hiding, there may be an energetic cost from lost foraging opportunities.
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Johnson, Bruce K.; Ager, Alan A.; Noyes, James H.; Cimon, Norm. 2004. Elk and mule deer responses to variation in hunting pressure. In: Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 625-640
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