Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (498 KB bytes)

Title: An organizing framework for wilderness values

Author: Bergstrom, John C.; Bowker, J. Michael; Cordell, H. Ken;

Date: 2005

Source: In: The Multiple Values of Wilderness: 47-55

Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication

Description: Scientists, philosophers, poets, and politicians have defined wilderness in various physical, biological, and metaphysical terms. Following a metaphysical line of thought, wilderness has been described as a subjective "idea" in the mind of the beholder (Oelschlaeger, 1991). The Wilderness Act uses many physical and biological terms to define statutory wilderness as a land area "without permanent improvements or human habitation ... .which generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature" and "has at least five thousand acres of land or is of sufficient size as to make practicable its preservation and use in an unimpaired condition" (Wilderness Institute, 2004). Thus, according to the Wilderness Act, statutory wilderness is clearly a physical place and not just a metaphysical idea.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication. (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)



Bergstrom, John C.; Bowker, J. Michael; Cordell, H. Ken 2005. An organizing framework for wilderness values. In: The Multiple Values of Wilderness: 47-55


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.