Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (384 KB bytes)

Title: Mineral scale management. Part II, Fundamental chemistry

Author: Rudie, Alan W.; Hart, Peter W.;

Date: 2006

Source: Tappi journal. Vol. 5, no. 7 (2006) pages 17-23.

Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication

Description: The mineral scale that deposits in digesters and bleach plants is formed by a chemical precipitation process.As such, it is accurately modeled using the solubility product equilibrium constant. Although solubility product identifies the primary conditions that must be met for a scale problem to exist, the acid-base equilibria of the scaling anions often control where in the process scale will occur. These equilibria are the primary control method to minimize or prevent scale in a bleach plant. Both the acid-base equilibria and solubility product equilibria are influenced by temperature and ionic strength. This paper reviews the chemistry of precipitation and acid-base equilibria. The Gibbs free energy expression is presented as a method to estimate equilibrium constants at temperatures in the bleach plant.The effect of ionic strength on ion activity and its influence on these processes are also discussed.

Keywords: Calcium carbonate, ion exchange, acid-base equilibrium, anions, chemical equilibrium, anions, chemical equilibrium, precipitation, calcium oxalate, pulping, pulp mills, incrustations, solubility, barium sulphate, wood-pulp, bleaching, chlorine dioxide, lime, digesters, pulp and paper processes

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Rudie, Alan W.; Hart, Peter W. 2006. Mineral scale management. Part II, Fundamental chemistry. Tappi journal. Vol. 5, no. 7 (2006) pages 17-23.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.