Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (3.90 MB bytes)

Title: Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: habitat requirements of anadromous salmonids.

Author: Reiser, D.W.; Bjornn, T.C.;

Date: 1979

Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-096. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 1-54

Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)

Description: Habitat requirements of anadromous and some resident salmonid fishes have been described for various life stages, including upstream migration of adults, spawning, incubation, and juvenile rearing.

Factors important in the migration of adults are water temperature, minimum water depth, maximum water velocity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and barriers.

Habitat requirements for successful spawning are suitable water temperature, water depth, water velocity, and substrate composition. Cover—riparian vegetation, undercut banks, and so on—is needed to protect salmonids waiting to spawn and may influence the selection of spawning locations.

Incubation requirements incorporate both extra- and intragravel factors. Extragravel factors are: dissolved oxygen, temperature, velocity, discharge, and biochemical oxygen demand of the stream. Intragravel factors are dissolved oxygen, temperature, permeability, apparent velocity, and sediment composition.
Important habitat components for juvenile rearing are fish food production areas, water quality, cover, and space. Good fish food production areas are mostly riffles with water depths of 0.15-0.91 m, water velocities of 0.30-0.46 m/s, and substrates of coarse gravel and rubble (3.2-30.4 cm). Good water quality for rearing salmonids includes mean summer water temperatures of 10.0°-14.0°C, dissolved oxygen at more than 80-percent saturation, suspended sediment less than 25 mg/liter, and fine sediment content of riffles less than 20 percent. Adequate cover—in the form of riparian vegetation, undercut banks, aquatic vegetation, and rubble-boulder areas—is needed to protect juvenile fish from predation and adverse physical factors.

Keywords: fish habitat, anadromous fish, salmonids, habitat needs

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • You may send email to pnw_pnwpubs@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication. (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)

XML: View XML

Citation:


Reiser, D.W.; Bjornn, T.C. 1979. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: habitat requirements of anadromous salmonids. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-096. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 1-54

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.