Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (1.15 MB bytes)

Title: Hardwood pallet cant quality and pallet part yields

Author: Mitchell, Hal L.; White, Marshall; Araman, Philip; Hamner, Peter;

Date: 2005

Source: Forest Products Journal, Vol. 55(12): 233-238

Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication

Description: Raw materials are the largest cost component in pallet manufacturing. The primary raw material used to produce pallet parts are pallet cants. Therefore, pallet cant quality directly impacts pallet part processing and material costs. By knowing the quality of the cants being processed, pallet manufacturers can predict these costs and improve manufacturing efficiency. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate hardwood cant grading rules for use by pallet manufacturers and suppliers. Yield studies were necessary to accurately quantify the relationship between pallet part yield and cant quality. Twenty-eight yield studies were conducted throughout the Eastern United States at pallet mills producing parts from hardwood cants. Three preliminary pallet cant grades were used to segregate the cants according to the volume of unsound wood. A total of 47,258 board feet of hardwood cants were graded and processed into pallet parts. Pallet part yield and yield losses were determined for each preliminary cant grade. The average pallet part yield from the preliminary cant Grades 1,2, and 3 were 83,77, and 47 percent, respectively. Yield losses attributed to unsound defects were 2,8, and 39 percent for preliminary Grades 1,2, and 3, respectively. It was shown that although the grade rules produced statistically different quality divisions between grades, a more practical approach is to establish a single minimum cant quality based on yield and an economic assessment of cant and pallet part value. A new cant grading procedure is proposed specifying a single cant grade permitting up to one-third (33%) unsound volume.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication. (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)



Mitchell, Hal L.; White, Marshall; Araman, Philip; Hamner, Peter 2005. Hardwood pallet cant quality and pallet part yields. Forest Products Journal, Vol. 55(12): 233-238


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.