Title: Whitebark pine ecosystem restoration in western Montana
Author: Keane, Robert E.; Arno, Stephen F.;
Source: In: Hardy, Colin C.; Arno, Stephen F., eds. The use of fire in forest restoration. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-341. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p. 51-53.
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Description: Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a major tree species of upper subalpine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains (Schmidt and McDonald 1990). It is an important nutritional and structural component of wildlife habitat (Arno and Hoff 1990; Schmidt and McDonald 1990). Its large, nutlike seeds are a major food source for many birds and mammals (about 105 species) including squirrels, black and grizzly bears, and Clark's nutcrackers (Hutchins and Lanner 1982). The species protects watersheds by stabilizing soil and rock on the harshest sites and by catching and securing snowpack. Historically, whitebark pine was a major species on 10 to 15 percent of the forest landscape in western Montana and central Idaho (Arno 1986); thus, its perpetuation is of concern for maintaining natural biodiversity and landscape structure.
Keywords: fire ecology, fire regimes, forest restoration, whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, Montana
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Keane, Robert E.; Arno, Stephen F. 1996. Whitebark pine ecosystem restoration in western Montana. In: Hardy, Colin C.; Arno, Stephen F., eds. The use of fire in forest restoration. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-341. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p. 51-53.
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