Title: Sand lance: a review of biology and predator relations and annotated bibliography.
Author: Robards, Martin D.; Willson, Mary F.; Armstrong, Robert H.; Piatt, John F. eds.;
Source: Res. Pap. PNW-RP-521. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
Description: Sand lance (Ammodytes) constitute a major prey for at least some populations of over 100 species of consumer, including 40 species of birds, 12 species of marine mammals, 45 species of fishes, and some invertebrates. Variation in the availability of sand lance (and other forage fishes) can have major effects on the breeding success and survival of their predators. Commercial fishing and other pressures on sand lance populations potentially have ramifying effects on many species of wildlife.
Keywords: Sand lance, Ammodytes, predator/prey, seabirds, marine mammals, forage fish, predatory fish, Alaska
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Robards, Martin D.; Willson, Mary F.; Armstrong, Robert H.; Piatt, John F., eds. 2000. Sand lance: a review of biology and predator relations and annotated bibliography. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-521. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
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