Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (580 KB)

Title: Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

Author: Negron, Jose F.; McMillin, Joel D.; Anhold, John A.; Coulson, Dave;

Date: 2009

Source: Forest Ecology and Management. 257(4): 1353-1362.

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine, the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Say), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Ips latidens (LeConte), Ips knausi Swaine and Ips integer (Eichhoff) were the primary bark beetle species associated with ponderosa pine mortality. In this study we examine stand conditions and physiographic factors associated with bark beetle-caused tree mortality in ponderosa pine forests across five National Forests in Arizona. A total of 633 fixed-radius plots were established across five National Forests in Arizona: Apache-Sitgreaves, Coconino, Kaibab, Prescott, and Tonto. Prior to the bark beetle outbreak, plots with mortality had higher tree and stocking compared with plots without pine mortality. Logistic regression modeling found that probability of ponderosa pine mortality caused by bark beetles was positively correlated with tree density and inversely related with elevation and tree diameter. Given the large geographical extent of this study resulting logistic models to estimate the likelihood of bark beetle attack should have wide applicability across similar ponderosa pine forests across the Southwest. This is particularly true of a model driven by tree density and elevation constructed by combining all forests. Tree mortality resulted in significant reductions in basal area, tree density, stand density index, and mean tree diameter for ponderosa pine and for all species combined in these forests. Most of the observed pine mortality was in the 10-35 cm diameter class, which comprise much of the increase in tree density over the past century as a result of fire suppression and grazing practices. Ecological implications of tree mortality are discussed.

Keywords: drought, Ips, bark beetles, ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Negron, Jose F.; McMillin, Joel D.; Anhold, John A.; Coulson, Dave 2009. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 257(4): 1353-1362.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.