Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (120 KB)

Title: Why cage a tree? Use of whole-tree enclosures to assess introduced predators of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae

Author: Grant, Jerome F.; Rhea, James Rusty; Lambdin, Paris; Wiggins, Greg; Hakeem, Abdul;

Date: 2009

Source: In: McManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings. 20th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2009; 2009 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-51. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 72.

Publication Series: Other

   Note: This article is part of a larger document. View the larger document


While commonly used approaches (petri dishes, small arenas, growth chambers, greenhouse studies, sleeve cages, etc.) for evaluation of natural enemies provide important information, does the small size of these arenas limit their usefulness when evaluating introduced natural enemies for release against pests of tree species? Can methods be improved to evaluate natural enemies of these pests? A project was developed to assess the use of large tree cages to enhance our understanding of the survival, colonization, and establishment of introduced biological control agents against the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand, on eastern hemlock, and to assess the impact of these agents on population densities of this serious invasive pest and on tree health.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • This publication may be available in hard copy. Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
  • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.



Grant, Jerome F.; Rhea, James “Rusty”; Lambdin, Paris; Wiggins, Greg; Hakeem, Abdul. 2009. Why cage a tree? Use of whole-tree enclosures to assess introduced predators of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.