Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (2.7 MB)

Title: Heat-treatment options and heating times for ash firewood

Author: Wang, Xiping; Bergman, Richard PhD; Simpson, William T.; Verrill, Steve; Mace, Terry;

Date: 2009

Source: General Technical Report FPL-GTR-187. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 29 pages.

Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)


Because of the potential risk associated with moving firewood infested with emerald ash borer, the interstate movement of all hardwood firewood is currently restricted under Federal quarantine. Communities and firewood producers are now faced with decisions on how to treat firewood for interstate commerce. New regulations for heat sterilization of ash firewood require holding a core temperature of 160 °F for 75 min, much higher than the current international heating standard for treating solid wood packaging. The present study evaluated different heat-treatment options for various firewood operations and developed heat-treating schedules and heating time tables. We first conducted laboratory heating experiments using green and air-dried ash firewood and obtained heating time data for different heating schemes. Mathematical models were developed to estimate heating times for heating conditions not tested in the experiment. Heating time tables were developed for a series of heating temperatures and initial wood temperatures. Our field heat-treatment trial in a commercial dry-kiln facility indicated a significant difference in heating times between the laboratory kiln runs and the field kiln run. Although the size of kiln could have contributed to the increase of heating times in the field trial, the type of kiln and heat sources are the main factors that control the heating rate and result in differences in heating times. More field heat-treatment trials at different types of kiln facilities (steam, hot water, and direct fire) should be conducted in the future to calibrate the heating time tables developed through the laboratory experiments.

Keywords: Ash, diseases, pests, emerald ash borer, control, North America, fuelwood, sanitation, heat treatment, firewood, dry heat, wet heat

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Wang, Xiping; Bergman, Richard; Simpson, William T.; Verrill, Steve; Mace, Terry. 2009. Heat-treatment options and heating times for ash firewood. General Technical Report FPL-GTR-187. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 29 pages.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.