You are here: Home
/ Publication Information
Title: Breeding biology and behavior of Hammond's and western flycatchers in northwestern California
Author: Sakai, H.F.;
Source: Western Birds. 19(2): 49-60
Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
Description: The Hammond's (Empidonax hammondii) and Western (E. difficilis) flycatchers are sympatric within portions of their breeding ranges in north- western California. Westerns are common in a variety of habitats (Bent 1942:247, Johnson 1980:11-23); Hammond's are more abundant at higher elevations (Bent 1942:226, Johnson 1963:140-143). Only one ma- jor study of each species' breeding biology has been reported; both looked at the species in places where they do not occur together. Davis et al. (1963) studied the breeding biology of Westerns in a hardwood-dominated forest in northern Monterey County, California. Davis (1954) studied the breeding biology of Hammond's in mixed coniferous and deciduous forests at Flathead Lake, Montana. More knowledge is needed of both species' breeding ecology and behavior where they are sympatric on their nesting grounds. I report here on a comparative study of the breeding behavior and biology of color-marked birds.
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
XML: View XML
Sakai, H.F. 1988. Breeding biology and behavior of Hammond''s and western flycatchers in northwestern California. Western Birds. 19(2): 49-60.
Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility