Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (123 KB)

Title: Impact of Imidacloprid for control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate asseblages.

Author: Churchel, Melissa; Hanula, James; Berisford, C. Wayne; Vose, James; Dalusky, Mark;

Date: 2011

Source: South. J. Appl. For. 35(1)26-32

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide that acts on the nervous system, is currently being used to control hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), which is damaging hemlock trees. The objective of this study was to determine whether soil injection with imidacloprid for hemlock woolly adelgid control near streams adversely affects aquatic invertebrates. Eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis) in the watersheds surrounding four streams in the southern Appalachian region of Georgia and North Carolina were treated with imidacloprid. Addie Branch was the only stream that exhibited a possible effect from imidacloprid treatment. However, the data followed the same pattern as the other treatment streams, but with a more pronounced decrease in taxa due to adult emergence. Only a trace amount of imidacloprid was detected in one water sample from Holcomb Tributary over a period of 2 years, and no effect was observed on the aquatic macroinvertebrates in that stream. However, caution should be used when applying these results to other areas with different soil types (e.g., low organic matter content) that may not bind imidacloprid as tightly. Our results indicate that soil injections of imidacloprid can safely be used in the southern Appalachian area to control hemlock woolly adelgid.

Keywords: streams, nontarget, aquatic insects, pesticides

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Churchel, M.A.; Hanula, J.L.; Berisford, C.W.; Vose, J.M.; Dalusky, M.J. 2011. Impact of Imidacloprid for control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate asseblages. South. J. Appl. For. 35(1)26-32.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.