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Title: Black bark as an indicator of bird peck defect in sugar maple
Author: Ohman, John H.; Kessler, K.J., Jr. Jr.;
Source: Res. Pap. LS-14. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Lake States Forest Experiment Station. 8 p.
Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
Description: Portions of the lower bole of occasional sugar maples (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in Lake States northern hardwood stands are sooty black in sharp contrast to the normal gray. The blackened areas may encircle the entire stem or be confined to a narrow band; they have been observed as high as 25 feet but generally extend about 15 feet above the ground. Preliminary investigations indicated that nearly all such trees had been heavily and repeatedly attacked by sapsuckers. The possibility of using the black bark as an external indicator of bird peck defect in sugar maple prompted this investigation.
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Ohman, John H.; Kessler, K.J., Jr. 1964. Black bark as an indicator of bird peck defect in sugar maple. Res. Pap. LS-14. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Lake States Forest Experiment Station. 8 p.
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