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Title: Determining Clark's nutcracker use of whitebark pine communities in regard to stand health in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park

Author: Scott, Jennifer D.; Tomback, Diana F.; Wunder, Michael B.;

Date: 2011

Source: In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 61-62.

Publication Series: Proceedings (P)

   Note: This article is part of a larger document. View the larger document

Description: Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), one of five stone pines worldwide, is found at treeline and subalpine elevations in the mountains of western North America (McCaughey and Schmidt 2001). Considered a keystone species, it helps maintain subalpine biodiversity, protects watersheds and promotes post-fire regeneration (Tomback and others 2001). The Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) and whitebark pine are co-evolved mutualists (Tomback 1982). Nutcrackers remove seeds from whitebark pine cones and cache them in high- and low-elevation forests and terrain, returning to feed on the seeds for up to a year. Nutcrackers are the principal mode of seed dispersal for whitebark pine, and unretrieved seeds are the primary source for regeneration (Hutchins and Lanner 1982; Tomback 1982, 2001).

Keywords: high elevation five-needle pines, threats, whitebark, Pinus albicaulis, limber, Pinus flexilis, southwestern white, Pinus strobiformis, foxtail, Pinus balfouriana, Great Basin bristlecone, Pinus longaeva, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata

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Scott, Jennifer D.; Tomback, Diana F.; Wunder, Michael B. 2011. Determining Clark's nutcracker use of whitebark pine communities in regard to stand health in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 61-62.

 


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