Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (157 KB)

Title: Sugar pine seed harvest by Clark's nutcracker: Annual use of a transient resource in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon

Author: Turner, Taylor J.; Tomback, Diana F.; Van Anderson, Bradley; Murray, Michael;

Date: 2011

Source: In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 72-73.

Publication Series: Proceedings (P)

   Note: This article is part of a larger document. View the larger document

Description: Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) are well known for using conifer seeds as their principal nutriment source. Seeds are primarily harvested from whitebark (Pinus albicaulis), piƱon (P. edulis), limber (P. flexilis), southwestern white (P. strobiformis), Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi), and ponderosa (P. ponderosa) pine as well as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) (Tomback 1998). However, prior to our studies, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) seed harvest by Clark's nutcrackers was not documented. Sugar pine seeds, which bear long seed wings, are among the largest of pine seeds (average of 0.216 g; Tomback and Linhart 1990) and the cones are the longest among all pines (up to 66 cm, Kinloch and Scheuner 1990). Observations over several years in Crater Lake National Park (CLNP), Oregon, indicate that Clark's nutcrackers harvest sugar pine seeds, but only for about a week in late September when most cones open. The first observations of nutcrackers using sugar pine seeds in CLNP were made by Michael Murray from 2004 to 2006, and then more detailed studies were conducted by Taylor Turner, Brad Van Anderson, and Diana F. Tomback in 2008 and 2009, working in the old-growth sugar pine forest.

Keywords: high elevation five-needle pines, threats, whitebark, Pinus albicaulis, limber, Pinus flexilis, southwestern white, Pinus strobiformis, foxtail, Pinus balfouriana, Great Basin bristlecone, Pinus longaeva, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • You may send email to rmrspubrequest@fs.fed.us to request a hard copy of this publication. (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)

XML: View XML

Citation:


Turner, Taylor J.; Tomback, Diana F.; Van Anderson, Bradley; Murray, Michael. 2011. Sugar pine seed harvest by Clark's nutcracker: Annual use of a transient resource in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. In: Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 28-30 June 2010; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 72-73.

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.